Guidelines for Submission of Papers
Octet op.32 - Ernesto Ferreri
Octet op.32, is a composition finished this summer (2013). It began with the rearrangement of some symphonic fragments from 1979, some of this music was in my portfolio for my audition into Manhattan School of Music. It has a clarinet, bassoon, french horn, 2 violins, viola, cello and string bass.
What does op. 32 mean? Publishers assign "opus numbers" to a composer's work, usually in the chronological order of its appearance. Self-publishing composers may assign their own.
This octet is in two movements, that is, two discrete pieces that sound generally complete if given separately, a composer may compose as many movements as they wish to.
The "performance" of the octet given here is makes use of on-board synthesis from a notation program (FinaleTM). It is important to understand however, that the notation itself is a "recording" of the composition, in fact with more "fidelity" than the audio-- the musical score tells performers what precisely to play. Not only pitch and rhythm is precisely notated, but also dynamics (the quality of loud or soft and various shadings) and tempo indications to set the speed of the music. From the full score a separate part is extracted for each instrument.
This octet would be classified as "chamber music" as opposed to orchestral or symphonic music as it is a smaller ensemble than an orchestra which usually has 30-100 players.
Particle size, flow speed, and body size interactions determine feeding rates of a solitary ascidian Styela plicata : a flume experiment
Andrew N. Sumerel, Cape Fear Community College & Christopher M. Finelli, University of North Carolina Wilmington
Photo : http://www.biologiamarina.org/
ABSTRACT: Benthic suspension feeders are a primary conduit for the transfer of carbon from the
water column to the benthos. As such, factors that influence their feeding require mechanistic
study and quantification. In this flume experiment, the clearance rate of the solitary ascidian
Styela plicata varied as a function of flow speed, body size, and particle diameter. At all flow
speeds and body sizes tested, clearance rates increased directly with particle diameter to ~10 μm.
As particle diameter increased further to ~32 μm, clearance remained constant or declined
depending on flow speed. At 3 and 22 cm s-1, clearance remained constant with particle diameter
>10 μm. At 14 cm s-1, clearance sharply declined as particle diameter increased above 10 μm. In
general, clearance rates increased with body size across all particle diameters. However, allometric
exponents relating clearance rate to body size, which ranged from 0.28 to 0.62, were lower than
expected (~0.67) due to the confounding effects of water flow, to which clearance rate responded
in a non-linear fashion. We fit our measurements to a 3-dimensional surface that relates clearance
rate, body size, and flow speed. These surface fits show that clearance of small particles (<10 μm
diameter) was maximal at intermediate flow speeds (~12 cm s-1) and decreased at both faster and
slower flow speeds. This ‘unimodal’ response is consistent with predictions of suspension-feeding
theory. In contrast, clearance of large particles (>10 μm diameter) decreased steadily as flow
speed increased from 3 to 22 cm s-1.