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African Americans in Congress : A Documentary History

Complete Table of Contents for African Americans in Congress : A Documentary History, Eric Freedman and Stephen A. Jones, editors (2008)
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  • 1 : The Revolutionary War to Dred Scott : The Antecedents of Political Empowerment, 1776-1857 : Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776 – Petition for Voting Rights from Seven African American Men, Dartmouth, Massachusetts, March 1780 – Northwest Ordinance, July 13, 1787 – Constitution of the United States, September 17, 1787 – A Petition of Four Free Blacks to the United States House of Representatives, as Presented to Congress on January 30, 1797 – Missouri Compromise, March 6, 1820 – Excerpt from Pamphlet by Maria W. Stewart, Boston, October 1831 – William Hamilton Addresses the Fourth Annual National Negro Convention, New York, June 2, 1834 – Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens, Threatened with Disfranchisement, to the People of Pennsylvania, 1838 – Charles L. Remond Decries Segregation before a Committee of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1842 – Henry Clay’s Resolution, January 29, 1850 – Fugitive Slave Act, September 18, 1850 – Frederick Douglass Outlines His Political Philosophy for the Rochester Ladies Anti-Slavery Society, Rochester, New York, July 5, 1852 – An Act to Organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas, May 30, 1854 – Judgment in the U.S. Supreme Court Case Dred Scott v. Sandford, March 6, 1857

    2 : The Civil War : The Slavery Debate Erupts, 1860-1865 : Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, Adopted December 24, 1860 – Permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America, March 11, 1861 – Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, September 22, 1862 – Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863 – Correspondence about the Union Naval Service of Robert Smalls, May 1862 and January 1883 – Petition of the Colored Citizens of Queens County, New York, September 1862 – Letters about the New York City Draft Riots from Eyewitness Edward Markoe Wright to His Mother, July 1863 – Army Appropriations Bill Mandating Equal Treatment of African American Soldiers in the Union Army, June 15, 1864 – Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, Passed by Congress January 31, 1865, Ratified December 6, 1865 – Confederate Authorization to Enlist Slaves, as Promulgated by the Confederate Adjutant and Inspector General’s Office, March 23, 1865 – Freedmen’s Bureau Act, March 3, 1865

    3 :  Reconstruction : Increasing Rights and Political Empowerment, 1868-1883 : Articles of Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson, Presented to the Senate by Rep. John A. Bingham, R-Ohio, March 4, 1868 – Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, Proposed to the States by Congress, June 16, 1866, Ratified July 9, 1868 – Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, Passed by Congress February 26, 1869, Ratified February 3, 1870 – Senate Debate on the Seating of Hiram R. Revels of Mississippi, February 23-25, 1870 – Sen. Hiram R. Revels, R-Miss, Speaks in Support of School Desegregation in Washington, D.C., February 8, 1871 – Rep. Robert C. De Large, R-S.C., Supports the Ku Klux Klan Act, April 6, 1871 – Rep. Robert B. Elliott, R-S.C., Opposes Legislation Offering Amnesty to Former Confederates, March 14, 1871 – P.B.S. Pinchback Argues for a Seat in Congress, June 8, 1874 – Rep. John R. Lynch, R-Miss., Speaks in Support of the Civil Rights Bill, February 3, 1875 – “Mississippi in 1875,” Report of the Senate Select Committee to Inquire into the Mississippi Election of 1875, August 7, 1876 – Senate Select Committee Report on the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company, April 2, 1880 – U.S. Supreme Court Decision in the Civil Rights Cases, October 15, 1883

    4 : After Reconstruction : Political Disenfranchisement and Banishment, 1880-1904 : Benjamin Singleton Testifies before the Senate Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States, April 17, 1880 – U.S. Supreme Court Decision in the Ku-Klux Cases, Ex parte Yarbrough, March 3, 1884 – Rep. James E. O’Hara, R-N.C., Speaks against a Bill to Regulate the Oleomargarine Industry, June 2, 1886 – Excerpts from House Debate on the Federal Elections bill, July 1890 – U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, May 18, 1896 – Afro-American Sentinel Editorial on William Jennings Bryan and His Support of Rep. Henry P. Cheatham, R-N.C., August 29, 1896 – Amended Constitution of Louisiana, 1898 – The Democratic Hand Book, 1898, North Carolina – Newspaper Accounts Chronicling Lynching and Vigilantism, 1891-1904 – Rep. George H. White, R-N.C., Delivers His Valedictory Speech on the Floor of the House of Representatives, January 29, 1901 – A Republican Text-book for Colored Voters, 1901 – George E. Taylor Accepts the National Liberty Party’s Presidential Nomination, July 1904

    5 : The Early Twentieth Century to the Civil Rights Movement : A Slow Return to Washington, 1913-1964 : Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, Passed by Congress May 13, 1912, Ratified April 8, 1913 – U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Nixon v. Herndon, March 7, 1927 – Rep. Oscar S. De Priest, R-Ill., Challenges Segregation of the Restaurant of the Capitol, March 21, 1934 – Rep. Arthur W. Mitchell, D-Ill., Addresses Declining Support among Blacks for the Republican Party, June 1, 1936 – Mary McLeod Bethune Reports to President Franklin D. Roosevelt on the Problems of the Negro and Negro Youth, January 18, 1937 – Executive Order 8802, Prohibition of Discrimination in the Defense Industry, June 25, 1941 – “Civil War II,” from Marching Blacks, by Rep. Adam Clayton Powell Jr., D-N.Y., 1945 – Executive Order 9981, Desegregation of the Armed Forces, July 26, 1948 – U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Brown v. Board of Education, May 17, 1954 – Rep. Charles C. Diggs Jr., D-Mich., Argues for Voter Rights Legislation, June 10, 1957 – Civil Rights Act of 1964, July 2, 1964

    6 : The Civil Rights Movement and Beyond : Equal Rights and Political Empowerment, 1965-1993 : Voting Rights Act of 1965, August 6, 1965 – Rep. Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., Describes the Founding of the Congressional Black Caucus in 1971 – President Richard M. Nixon’s Letter to Members of the Congressional Black Caucus, May 18, 1971 – Rep. Ronald V. Dellums, D-Calif., Recalls the Fight for a Prized Committee Assignment in January 1973 – Opening Statements of House Judiciary Committee Members John Conyers Jr., D-Mich., Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., and Barbara C. Jordan, D-Texas, on the Impeachment of President Richard M. Nixon, July 1974 – Office of Management and Budget Analyzes Congressional Black Caucus Proposal, September 1974 – Excerpts from the 1975 Congressional Black Caucus Legislative Agenda, March 5, 1975 – President Jimmy Carter’s Remarks at the Swearing-in of Rep. Andrew J. Young Jr., D-Ga., as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, January 30, 1977 – Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act, October 27, 1978 – Legislation Creating the Martin Luther King Jr. Holiday, November 2, 1963 – Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986, October 2, 1986 – Congressional Black Caucus Fiscal Year 1991 Alternative Budget, April 1990

    7 : The Modern Era : The Congressional Black Caucus and the “Republican Revolution,” 1994-2007 : Letter by House Committee Chairs Opposing the Appointment of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court, September 11, 1991 – Republican Contract with America, September 27, 1994 – Rep. Sanford D. Bishop Jr., D-Ga., Supports the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, July 31, 1996 – Rep. J.C. Watts Jr., R-Okla., Delivers the GOP Reply to President Bill Clinton’s State of the Union Address, February 4, 1997 – Minority Report of the House Committee on the Judiciary on the Impeachment of President Bill Linton, December 16, 1998 – Black Caucus Members Challenge Florida Electoral College Votes in the 2000 Election, January 6, 2001 – Rep. John Conyers Jr., D-Mich., Attacks Challenge to Affirmative Action, April 1, 2003 – Congressional Black Caucus Opposes the Nomination of John G. Roberts Jr. as Chief Justice, September 20, 2005 – Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., on “Teaching Our Kids in a 21st Century Economy,” October 25, 2005 – Renewal of the Voting Rights Acts of 1965, July 27, 2006

    8 : African Americans Run for Office : Campaigns and Elections : J. Willis Menard, R-La., Tries to Claim a Seat, February 27, 1869 – Rep., John R. Lynch, R-Miss., Recollects His Election Campaigns, 1872-1882 – James W. Ford Accepts the 1936 Communist Party Nomination for Vice President, June 1936 – Edward W. Brooke III of Massachusetts Discusses Republican Conservatism, 1966 – Campaign Flyer for Charles B. Rangel in New York’s Nineteenth Congressional District, June 1972 – Campaign Flyer for Livingston L. Wingate in New York’s Nineteenth Congressional District, June 1972 – Harold Washington Delivers His First Inaugural Address as Mayor of Chicago, April 29, 1983 – Republican Reps. Gary A. Franks of Connecticut and J.C. Watts Jr. of Oklahoma Describe Their First Campaigns in 1990 and 1994 – Republican Alan Keyes and Democrat Barack Obama Debate the Issues in the Illinois Election for U.S. Senate, October 21, 2004 – Political Endorsements for Democratic House Candidate Keith Ellison of Minnesota, 2006 – Sen. Elizabeth H. Dole, R-N.C., and Sen. Charles E. Schumer, D-N.Y., Discuss the Ford and Steele Campaigns with Tim Russert on Meet the Press, November 5, 2006

    9 : African Americans Face a Political Reality : Ethics and Corruption Investigations : Editorial and Letter to the Editor Opposing Rep. William L. Dawson, D-Ill., as Potential Postmaster General, Chicago Daily News, December 1960 – Letters to President-elect John F. Kennedy, Opposing Consideration of Rep. William L. Dawson, D-Ill., as Possible Postmaster General, December 1960 – House Resolution to Seat Re. Adam Clayton Powell Jr., D-N.Y., January 3, 1969 – Appeals Court Confirms the Corruption Conviction of Rep. Charles C. Diggs Jr., D-Mich., in U.S. v. Diggs, November 14, 1979 – Articles of Impeachment against Judge Alcee  L. Hastings, October 20, 1989 – Resolution of House Committee on Official Standards Authorizing an Investigation of Rep. Gus Savage, D-Ill., August 3, 1989, and Savage’s Letter of Apology, November 20, 1989 – Judge’s Decision Upholding Mistrial in Criminal Case against Rep. Harold E. Ford, D-Tenn., in U.S. v. Ford, April 10, 1991 – Federal Indictment of Rep. Melvin J. Reynolds, D-Ill., in U.S. v. Melvin J. Reynolds and Marisol C. Reynolds, November 7, 1996 – Opening Appellate Brief of Former Rep. Walter R. Tucker III, D-Calif., in U.S. v. Walter R. Tucker, May 13, 1997 – Justice Department Press Release Announces Criminal Case against Former Del. Walter E. Fauntroy, D-D.C., March 22, 1995 – Congressional Accountability Project Letter Accusing Rep. Barbara-Rose Collins, D-Mich., of Ethics Violations, October 3, 1995 – Rep. Frank W. Balance Jr.’s Resignation Letter, June 8, 2004 – Statement of House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., on Rep. Balance’s Resignation, June 8, 2004 – U.S. Court of Appeals Decision on the Search of the Capitol Hill Office of Rep. William J. Jefferson, D-La., August 3, 2007

    10 : African American Women in Congress : A Long Road to Office : Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, Passed by Congress on June 4, 1919, Ratified August 18, 1920 – Rep. Shirley A. Chisholm, D-N.Y., Supports the Equal Rights Amendment, August 10, 1970 – Letter to President Ronald Reagan from the Congressional Caucus on Women’s Issues, September 28, 1982 – Rep. Katie B. Hall, D-Ind., Leads Debate on Bill to Establish a National Holiday Honoring Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., August 2, 1983 – Rep. Barbara C. Jordan, D-Texas, Reflects on President Lyndon  B. Johnson’s Great Society, April 1985 – Sen. Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., Pleads the Case of Battered Women, March 30, 1990 – Rep. Cardiss Collins, D-Ill., Urges the House to Approve the Child Safety Protection Act, May 23, 1994 – Rep. Sheila Jackson-Lee, D-Texas, Eulogizes Rep. Barbara C. Jordan, January 24, 1996 -- Rep. Sheila Jackson-Lee, D-Texas, Argues against Impeaching President Bill Clinton, October 6, 1998 – Rep. Maxine Waters, D-Calif., Attacks Republicans on Iraq War Policies in House Debate, June 14, 2006 – Rep. Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, D-Mich., Pleads for Action on Darfur Crisis, September 20, 2006 – Del. Eleanor Homes Norton, D-D.C., Introduces the D.C. House Voting Rights Bill of 2007, March 12, 2007

    11 : African American Lawmakers Fight Racism : Representatives of an Excluded People : Sen. Blanche K. Bruce, R-Miss., Discusses American Indian Policy on the Senate Floor, April 6, 1880 – Rep. James E. O’Hara, R-N.C., Seeks to End Segregation on Railroads, December 17, 1884 – Rep. Thomas E. Miller, R-S.C., Calls for Civil Rights Protections, January 12, 1891 – Opponents Filibuster Gavagan Anti-Lynching Bill, January 7, 1938 – Letter to Rep. Oscar S. De Priest, R-Ill. From Rep. J.C. Shaffer, R-Va., June 18, 1929 --  Rep. William L. Dawson’s Letter to Assistant Secretary of War John J. McCloy, February 28, 1944 – Rep. Charles C. digs, D-Mich., Comments on Emmett Till Murder Trial as He Enters Look Magazine Article into the Congressional Record, January 12, 1956 – African American Lawmakers Oppose the Hanging of Rep. Howard W. Smith Portrait in House Rules Committee Room, January 24 and 25, 1995 – Democrats Express their Opposition to the Effective Death Penalty Act of 1995, February 8, 1995 – Sen. Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., Argues for Resolution on Church Burnings, June 13, 1996 – Del. Eleanor Homes Norton, D-D.C., Speaks on Racial Profiling Prohibition Act, May 17, 2001 – Rep. Jesse Jackson, D-Ill., Attacks the Comments Made by Sen. Trent Lott, R-Miss., December 14, 2002.

    12 : African American Lawmakers and International Affairs : America as a World Power : Rep. Josiah T. Walls, R-Fla., Speaks on Cuban Belligerency, January 24, 1874 – Rep. George H. White, R-N.C., Calls for Annexation of the Philippines, January 26, 1899 – Rep. Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., Questions Administration Witnesses during House Committee Hearings on Southeast Asia Narcotics, July 1977 – Court Decision in Crockett v. Reagan Rejects Challenge to U.S. Policy in El Salvador, October 4, 1982 – Federal Judge Rebuffs Challenge to U.S. Policy in Nicaragua in Sanchez-Espinoza v. Regan, August 1, 1983 – Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, D-D.C., Discusses Fighting AIDS in Africa on the House Floor, March 14, 2001 – Rep. Gregory W. Meeks, D-N.Y., Attacks U.S. role in the Ouster of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, March 3, 2004 – Congressional Black Caucus’s Letter to British Prime Minister Tony Blair, June 7, 2005 – Rep. Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, D-Mich., Criticizes CAFTA Trade Legislation, July 27, 2005 – Congressional Black Caucus Members Are Arrested in Darfur Protest, May 16, 2006 – Rep. Barbara Lee, D-Calif., and Rep. al Green, D-Texas, Speak about Attacks on Israel, July 19, 2006 – Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., Speaks about the Secure Fence Act, September 21, 2006.

    13: At the Heart of the African American Experience : The Struggle for Economic Justice : Rep. Benjamin S. Turner, R-Ala., Proposes a Refund of the Cotton Tax on the House Floor, May 31, 1872 – Rep. George W. Murray, R-S.C., Discusses Impact of Monetary Policy, August 24, 1893 – Rep. George H. White, R-N.C., Supports Tariffs to Protect Southern Laborers, March 31, 1897 – NAACP Executive Secretary Walter White’s Letter to President Herbert Hoover, February 4, 1932 – Rep. Shirley A. Chisholm, D-N.Y., Campaigns for the Democratic Party’s Presidential Nomination, 1972 – Rep. Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., Call for Greater Attention to the Needs of the Poor, May 1973 – Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans Act, Introduced in House November 20, 1989 – Rep. Major R.O. Owens, D-N.Y., Raps about the War in Iraq on the House Floor, July 18, 2003 – Fair Pay Act of 2005, Introduced April 19, 2005 – Rep. Barbara Lee, D-Calif., Urges Relief for Hurricane Katrina Victims, March 14, 2006.

    15 : Visions of America : The Dream and the Reality : Rep. Josiah T. Walls, R-Fla., Discusses America’s Centennial Celebration, May 7, 1874 – Rep. Richard H. Cain, R-S.C., Speaks on Civil Rights Legislation, January 10, 1874 – Rep. Shirley A. Chisholm, D-N.Y., Addresses the Needs of America’s Young People, 1970 – Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., D-N.Y., Explains Black Political and Social Activism, 1971 – Rep. Barbara C. Jordan, D-Texas, Delivers the Keynote Speech at the 1976 Democratic National Convention – Rep. Louis Stokes, D-Ohio, Comments on the “Peace Dividend,” February 7, 1990 – Rep. Gary A. Franks, R-Conn., Discusses Black Empowerment, February 24, 1993 – Rep. J.C. Watts, Jr., R- Okla., Describes his Vision of the American Dream, August 13, 1996 – Rep. John R. Lewis, D-Ga., Discusses the “Beloved Community,” 1998 – Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill, Discusses the Importance of Leadership and Universal Health Care, January 25, 2007 – Chronology of Major Events – African American Members of the 110th United States Congress – African American Members of Congress, 1870-2007.